Red Links


Expanding on the expanded encyclopedi

A Red Link is simply a word which could have further connotations for readers to explore. Red Links are often related to events and factors within the context of Beirut and the rest of Lebanon. You might wonder why the color 'red' was chosen? This is simply dedicated to the red banners of the Lebanese flag. To open a Red Link simply click on one! or the examples under:

Beirut Archive Index - Red Links - Ahmad Mukhtar Beyhum 


Al Daouk Coding System

Abbreviations and Codes:

How does the system work?

The Al Daouk archiving system is coded by certain abbreviations and letters to organize the high volume of entries into concise sections. Al Daouk's coding is divided into three sections: the abbreviation, the subject and the relevant section. Take BAX2000-2-8 for example: BAX abbreviates Beirut Archive Index, 2000 is the year of the archive and -2 / -8 represent paragraphs 2 and 8 within the archive. Thy hyphen "-" simply means paragraph. In other cases there could be a slash "/" following the code, a slash indicates a section withing the page of a code. For example RL/codes : RL abbreviates Red Links while /codes means 'section of codes under Red Links'.

A list of useful codes

  1. BAX- Beirut Archive Index
  2. LAX - Lebanon Archive Index
  3. MLX- Mount Lebanon Archive Index
  4. RAS - References and Sources
  5. RL- Red Links

Definitions: Beiruti


Spelled bey-roo-tee, Beiruti is the demonym of people who inhabit Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon. Before 1920, Beiruti also refereed to the citizens of Beirut Vilayet, a pershed state that existed for half a century during the late Ottoman Empire. 

Ottoman Administrative Divisions


Spelled vee-laa-yit, a vilayet was an administrative governorate under the Ottoman empire, the word derives from the Arabic word 'Wilayah' meaning 'state'. 

Other administrative divisions of the Ottoman empire (organised under the administrative hierarchy from the lowest authority to the highest authority):

  1. Aghalik - was a tribe or town's land under the absolute administration of an Agha
  2. Belediye - is a municipality of a city governed by a Hakem, Bey or Mayor, the term is still used in modern Arab republics 
  3. Kathaa - is the Ottoman equivilant of a canton, the word is still used in modern day Lebanon
  4. Mutasarrifiye - was a special autonomous province, bound by laws that did not apply to normal Sanjaks
  5. Sanjak - was an Ottoman province that was controlled by the Sanjakbey, who had absolute autonomy over his land
  6. Vilayet- was an administrative governorate under the Ottoman empire, it was ruled by the Wali

Definitions: Bey


Spelled bek or baik, a bey was a title for high status person among a tribe, city or a state throughout the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East.

Other related titles:

  1. Agha - was a title of honor with equal weighting to Bey
  2. Beylerbeyi - deriving from the same word as Bey, Beylerbeyi literally meant 'Lord of Lords'
  3. Emir - was a prince of a given land in Mount Lebanon, the Emir holds the absolute authority over his Emirate
  4. Hakem - is a synonym for ruler in Arabic and Turkish, which referred to a person who has absolute authority over an entity (Bank, City, State, Kingdom)
  5. Mutasarrif - was a special governor chosen by the Sultan to rule over special autonomous regions within the Ottoman Empire
  6. Pasha - was a high level Ottoman military title granted to the elite of the Ottoman army
  7. Sultan - referred to the absolute monarch of the Ottoman Empire, the title is still used by Sultan Qaboos bin Saeed al-Saeed of Oman
  8. Wali - was the Arabic equivalent of governor, the term was used throughout the Islamic Era until the collapse of the Ottoman Empire